A page for LMD Students - منتديات الجلفة لكل الجزائريين و العرب

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English Learning Ask questions about English grammar, vocabulary, usage and idioms..


في حال وجود أي مواضيع أو ردود مُخالفة من قبل الأعضاء، يُرجى الإبلاغ عنها فورًا باستخدام أيقونة تقرير عن مشاركة سيئة ( تقرير عن مشاركة سيئة )، و الموجودة أسفل كل مشاركة .

آخر المواضيع

A page for LMD Students

إضافة رد
 
أدوات الموضوع انواع عرض الموضوع
قديم 2013-11-12, 12:56   رقم المشاركة : 1
معلومات العضو
ath111
أستــاذ
 
الصورة الرمزية ath111
 

 

 
الأوسمة
وسام التقدير 
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افتراضي A page for LMD Students

Hello,everybody

Pleased to announce to you the opening of this page just for LMD students

who can meet , post threads,ask for help and offer help here.

So,dear students,this is your page.Don't hesitate to visit it






 

آخر تعديل ath111 2013-11-12 في 12:59.
رد مع اقتباس
مساحة إعلانية

قديم 2013-11-13, 06:14   رقم المشاركة : 2
معلومات العضو
ath111
أستــاذ
 
الصورة الرمزية ath111
 

 

 
الأوسمة
وسام التقدير 
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افتراضي

Some pieces of information in................................................ ......






رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-13, 06:16   رقم المشاركة : 3
معلومات العضو
ath111
أستــاذ
 
الصورة الرمزية ath111
 

 

 
الأوسمة
وسام التقدير 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

Some pieces of information in the British Civ

The Industrial Revolution in Great Britain (1700- 1900)

Introduction:

During the 1700s and early 1800s, great changes took place in the lives and work of people in several parts of the world. These changes resulted from the development of industrialization. The term Industrial Revolution refers both to the changes that occurred and to the period itself.
The Industrial Revolution began in Great Britain during the 1700s. It started spreading to other parts of Europe and to North America in the early 1800s. By the mid-1800s, industrialization had become widespread in western Europe and the northeastern United States.
The Industrial Revolution created an enormous increase in the production of many kinds of goods. Some of this increase in production resulted from the introduction of power-driven machinery and the development of factory organization. Before the revolution, manufacturing was done by hand or simple machines. Most people worked at home in rural areas. A few worked in shops in towns as part of associations called guilds. The Industrial Revolution eventually took manufacturing out of the home and workshop. Power-driven machines replaced handwork, and factories developed as the best way of bringing together the machines and the workers to operate them.
As the Industrial Revolution grew, private investors and financial institutions were needed to provide money for the further expansion of industrialization. Financiers and banks thus became as important as industrialists and factories in the growth of the revolution. For the first time in European history, wealthy business leaders called capitalists took over the control and organization of manufacturing.
Historians have disagreed on the significance of the Industrial Revolution. Some have emphasized that the importance of the revolution was in the great increase in the production of goods. They argue that this increase did more during the 1800s to raise peoples standard of living than all the actions of legislatures and trade unions. Other historians have stressed the negative parts of the revolution. They point to the overcrowded and unsanitary housing and the terrible working conditions created by rapid industrialization in the cities.
Some historians have even denied that the Industrial Revolution was revolutionary--that is, a period of great and sudden changes. These scholars insist that the basic elements of the Industrial Revolution can be traced back to developments in Europe hundreds of years before the 1700s.
Today, most historians agree that the Industrial Revolution was a great turning point in the history of the world. It changed the Western world from a basically rural and agricultural society to a basically urban and industrial society. Industrialization brought many material benefits, but it also created a large number of problems that still remain critical in the modern world. For example, most industrial countries face problems of air and water pollution.






رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-13, 06:20   رقم المشاركة : 4
معلومات العضو
ath111
أستــاذ
 
الصورة الرمزية ath111
 

 

 
الأوسمة
وسام التقدير 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

Some pieces of information in linguistics

Contrastive Analysis

Definition

Contrastive Analysis (CA) or Contrastive linguistics is the systematic comparison of two or more ********s, with the aim of describing their similarities and differences. "In the study of foreign ******** learning, the identification of points of structural similarity and difference between two ********s" (Crystal, 1992, p. 83).
The objective of the comparison may vary:
******** comparison is of great interest in a theoretical as well as an applied
perspective. It reveals what is general and what is ******** specific and is therefore
important both for the understanding of ******** in general and for the study of the
individual ********s compared. (Johansson and Hofland 1994: 25) "Contrastive analysis was developed and practiced in the 1950s and 1960s as application of structural linguistics to ******** teaching" (Richards, Platt & Platt, 1992, p. 83). CA describes similarities and differences among two or more ********s at such levels as phonology, grammar, and semantics.

Contrastive linguistics is thus not a unified field of study. The focus may be on general or on
******** specific features. The study may be theoretical, without any immediate application,
or it may be applied, i.e. carried out for a specific purpose.
The term 'contrastive linguistics', or 'contrastive analysis', is especially associated
with applied contrastive studies advocated as a means of predicting and/or explaining
difficulties of second ******** learners with a particular mother tongue in learning a
particular target ********. In the Preface to his well-known book, Lado (1957) expresses the
rationale of the approach as follows:
The plan of the book rests on the assumption that we can predict and describe the
patterns which will cause difficulty in learning and those that will not cause difficulty.


The stars refer to the word

لغة

which seems to be forbidden in the forum






آخر تعديل ath111 2013-11-13 في 06:22.
رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-13, 06:25   رقم المشاركة : 5
معلومات العضو
ath111
أستــاذ
 
الصورة الرمزية ath111
 

 

 
الأوسمة
وسام التقدير 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

Some pieces of information in psycho peda

Motivation and learning

I. Definition of motivation

Any definition and discussion is complicated since this concept is composed of many different and overlapping factors such as interest, curiosity, need or desire to achieve … More than this, the term motivation seems to be meaningful only in relation to a particular action, i.e., it only makes sense when we talk about being motivated to do something.
Motivation is a hypothetical concept used to explain the initiation, direction, intensity, and persistence of goal-oriented behaviour. In other words, motivation is an internal state that arouses, directs, and maintains behaviour. As such when we study of motivation, we focus on how and why people initiate actions directed toward specific goals, how intensively they are involved in the activity, how persistent they are in their attempts to achieve these goals, and what they are thinking and feeling along the way.
When analysing the reasons why people choose to act in certain ways, it becomes clear that these reasons for our actions fall into different types. Sometimes we do something because the act of doing it is enjoyable in itself. At other times, we engage in an activity not because we are particularly interested in the activity itself, but because performing it will help us to obtain something else that we want. Consequently, some explanations of motivation rely on internal, personal factors such as needs, interests and curiosity. Other explanations relay on external, environmental factors such as rewards, punishment, social pressure and so on. This difference in explanations had led to a classic distinction in motivation between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation






رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-13, 17:18   رقم المشاركة : 6
معلومات العضو
Raniaranya
عضو مشارك
 
الصورة الرمزية Raniaranya
 

 

 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

Thank you so much brother
That was beneficial !!







رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-13, 23:31   رقم المشاركة : 7
معلومات العضو
ath111
أستــاذ
 
الصورة الرمزية ath111
 

 

 
الأوسمة
وسام التقدير 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

اقتباس:
المشاركة الأصلية كتبت بواسطة Raniaranya مشاهدة المشاركة
Thank you so much brother
That was beneficial !!
You are welcome,sister






رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-13, 23:37   رقم المشاركة : 8
معلومات العضو
ath111
أستــاذ
 
الصورة الرمزية ath111
 

 

 
الأوسمة
وسام التقدير 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

Some information in linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of ********, which can be theoretical or applied. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist.
Theoretical (or general) linguistics encompasses a number of sub-fields, such as the study of ******** structure (grammar) and meaning (semantics). The study of grammar encompasses morphology (formation and alteration of word) and syntax (the rules that determine the way words combine into phrases and sentences). Also a part of this field are phonology, the study of sound systems and abstract sound units, and phonetics, which is concerned with the actual properties of speech sounds (phones), non-speech sounds, and how they are produced and perceive.
Linguistics compares ********s (comparative linguistics) and explores their histories, in order to find universal properties of ******** and to account for its development and origins (historical linguistics).
Applied linguistics puts linguistic theories into practice in areas such as foreign ******** teaching, speech therapy, translation and speech pathology
Linguists may specialize in some subpart of the linguistic structure, which can be arranged in the following terms, from sound to meaning:
Semantics, the study of the meaning of words (lexical semantics) and fixed word combinations (phraseology), and how these combine to form the meanings of sentences
Pragmatics, the study of how utterances are used (literally, figuratively, or otherwise) in communicative acts .
Discourse analysis, the analysis of ******** use in texts (spoken or written )
Many linguists would agree that the divisions overlap considerably, but the independent significance of each of these areas is not universally acknowledged. Regardless of any particular linguist’s position, each area has core concepts that foster significant scholarly inquiry and research.
Intersecting with these domains are fields arranged around the kind of external factors that are considered. For example
Stylistics, the study of linguistic factors that place a discourse in context
Developmental linguistics, the study of the development of linguistic ability in an individual, particularly the acquisition of ******** in childhood
Historical linguistics or Diachronic linguistics, the study of ******** change
Evolutionary linguistics, the study of the origin and subsequent development of ********
Psycholinguistics, the study of the cognitive processes and representations underlying ******** use
Sociolinguistics, the study of social patterns of linguistic variability
Clinical linguistics, the application of linguistic theory to the area of Speech-******** Pathology
Neurolinguistics, the study of the brain networks that underlie grammar and communication
Biolinguistics, the study of natural as well as human taught communication systems in animals compared to human ********
Computational linguistics, the study of computational implementations of linguistic structures
Applied linguistics, the study of ******** related issues applied in every day life, notably ******** policies and ********
education






رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-14, 11:51   رقم المشاركة : 9
معلومات العضو
toulay
أستـاذة، مشرفة منتديات الانجليزية، والتّعليم الثّانوي
 
الصورة الرمزية toulay
 

 

 
الأوسمة
العضو المميز 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

Peace be upon you
First,I want to thank you for this great idea

Some pieces of information in methodology

Definition of research:it is the process of arriving at dependable solutions to problems through the planned and systematic collection,analysis and interpretation of data(this definition is given by Osuala)

Characteristics of research:
-research addresses problems
-systematic research is carefully ordered in well-defined steps that are obvious to all
-it's empirical:it relies on objective observations of reality
-it is controlled (it must not be affected by anything the researcher is interested in)
-it is probalistic:based on probalities i.e nothing is certain or absolute.Everything is subject to change or total rejection in the light of evidence
-research is theoritical:it is concerned with developing,exploring or testing the theories or ideas we have about the world
-research is nomothetic:it is interested with the general case rather than the individual even when research studies the individual,it would want to generalize to more
-research is objective and non-based,the researcher must be objective enough







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قديم 2013-11-14, 11:52   رقم المشاركة : 10
معلومات العضو
Karim-Rap-4-Life
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية Karim-Rap-4-Life
 

 

 
الأوسمة
العضو المميز لسنة 2013 وسام التميز في منتدى الإنجليزية المرتبة الثالثة 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي


Hello everybody
I want to thank MR.ATH 111 for the thread which is a need in this section
inshallah we see an interruction between the students
.
I’m trying to put every module in every participation and eatch time I get new files I add them so as to be precise and make it easy for the researcher good luck



African Civilisation


West African Kingdoms before the Slave Trade by Lisa Lindsay




The African civilizations chapter 5_ (No author)
https://www.4shared.com/office/tu9VSX...lisations.html


AFRICAN AMERICANS by Roy S. Bryce-Laporte, Emory J. Tolbert

https://www.4shared.com/office/TC6ybbft/510.html


Africa: The Passing of the Golden Ages by John Henrik Clarke (May 1988
)
https://www.4shared.com/file/TfKgbEaJ/Africa.html


GHANA, MALI, SONGHAI (brief history)
https://www.4shared.com/office/ubbxsL...caPOSinfo.html


ANCIENT WEST AFRICAN KINGDOMS: AN OVERVIEW
https://www.4shared.com/file/hznU0s6V..._KINGDOMS.html

West Africa_ (No author)
https://www.4shared.com/office/ttTOX6iV/Ch1_sec_2.html

Early Urban Centres in West Africa_by Kolawole Adekola

https://www.4shared.com/office/sCx5vfny/news0309-4.html


GHANA, MALI AND SONGHAI EMPIRES_ Newsflash: heritage chronicles
https://www.4shared.com/office/FrqLBh...h_empires.html


Ghana Medieval Trading Empire of West Africa by Joan Parrish-Major

https://www.4shared.com/office/Gkpwit...7-preview.html


Saharan Trade: A Link between Europe and Africa

https://www.4shared.com/file/9BEa92oY...ran_Trade.html







رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-14, 12:04   رقم المشاركة : 11
معلومات العضو
Karim-Rap-4-Life
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية Karim-Rap-4-Life
 

 

 
الأوسمة
العضو المميز لسنة 2013 وسام التميز في منتدى الإنجليزية المرتبة الثالثة 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي


American civilization

Black Slavery:

African American History: 1615-Present by Dr. Brian L. Christenson
https://www.4shared.com/office/g5MAjy...ory_1615-.html

African Slavery in America _by Thomas Paine
https://www.4shared.com/office/D3y5Je...erica__by.html

African Slavery in America_ by Charles Jared Ingersoll
https://www.4shared.com/office/GPNTqi...erica_C_I.html

Beginnings of Slavery in the Americas

https://www.4shared.com/office/xoaHwc...n_america.html

Monroe Doctrine

The Monroe doctrine and the war_ by CARL BECKER
https://www.4shared.com/office/TOakjs...nd_the_wa.html

The Monroe Doctrine Origin and Early American Foreign Policy
https://www.4shared.com/office/5urgsw...rigin_and.html

The Monroe Doctrine (President James Monroe's 7th annual message to CongressDecember 2, 1823

https://www.4shared.com/office/Z0cuOYZS/The_Monroe_Doctrine.html


US expands to the pacific

WESTWARD EXPANSION
https://www.4shared.com/office/FspStW...EXPANSION.html

Westward Expansion Impact on American Indians 1860s - 1900s

https://www.4shared.com/office/B6O_NQ...pact_on_A.html



American Civil War

Florida Civil War Heritage Trail

https://www.4shared.com/office/vkyCMd...itage_Tra.html

American Civil War (PowerPoint)

https://www.4shared.com/office/_95bVo...Civil_War.html

Causes of American Civil War
https://www.4shared.com/office/Jck-II...Civil_war.html

Part 8 the American Civil War 1860 - 1865

https://www.4shared.com/office/U-A5Dt...ivil_War_.html

here is a short book about the life of the american president Abraham lincoln

https://www.4shared.com/office/tqvZay...gacy_of_f.html



a good book about american civ









رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-14, 12:46   رقم المشاركة : 12
معلومات العضو
Karim-Rap-4-Life
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية Karim-Rap-4-Life
 

 

 
الأوسمة
العضو المميز لسنة 2013 وسام التميز في منتدى الإنجليزية المرتبة الثالثة 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

American Literature

What is the American dream
https://www.4shared.com/file/Yq7lD3o6...can_Dream.html


American dream in Great Gatsby

https://www.4shared.com/file/dvTU9Khs...at_Gatsby.html


Death of a salesman by Arthur Miller (Novel)

https://www.4shared.com/office/_sx_sZ...y_Arthur_.html


Great gatsby (Arabic).PDF (Novel)


https://www.4shared.com/office/wcTODh...__Arabic_.html



Great Gatsby by Francis Scott Ftzgerald (Novel) pdf

https://www.4shared.com/office/53nwgz...at-Gatsby.html



Great gatsby analysis.pdf

https://www.4shared.com/office/b7uLWn..._analysis.html













رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-14, 16:10   رقم المشاركة : 13
معلومات العضو
Imiiii
عضو مشارك
 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

so clever idea i am second year student i wonder if you help me in linguistics about the lesson of the ordinary thinking please!!!!







رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-14, 18:34   رقم المشاركة : 14
معلومات العضو
Karim-Rap-4-Life
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية Karim-Rap-4-Life
 

 

 
الأوسمة
العضو المميز لسنة 2013 وسام التميز في منتدى الإنجليزية المرتبة الثالثة 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

British Literature

Heart of darkness (Arabic) translated by D. Ahmed Khaled Toufik
https://www.4shared.com/office/M7m-4i...__Arabic_.html

Heart of Darkness_ Joseph Conrad (English)

https://www.4shared.com/office/-g1OQW...arkness_T.html

Heart of darkness (Literary analysis)
https://www.4shared.com/file/JUJKwSui..._Darkness.html








رد مع اقتباس
قديم 2013-11-14, 18:57   رقم المشاركة : 15
معلومات العضو
Karim-Rap-4-Life
مشرف سابق
 
الصورة الرمزية Karim-Rap-4-Life
 

 

 
الأوسمة
العضو المميز لسنة 2013 وسام التميز في منتدى الإنجليزية المرتبة الثالثة 
إحصائية العضو










افتراضي

British Civilisation


Elections


Parliament and the electoral systems

https://www.4shared.com/office/03her2..._electora.html

Membership of UK political parties

https://www.4shared.com/office/x3ufjj...tical_par.html

Voting systems in the UK

https://www.4shared.com/office/b_8YiJ...in_the_UK.html


Industrial revolution


Industrial Revolution
https://www.4shared.com/office/8E4h3T...evolution.html

Industrial Revolution _JOEL MOKYR

https://www.4shared.com/office/6jHg_A..._JOEL_MOK.html

The Industrial Revolution and Consequences

https://www.4shared.com/office/bIjgNq...tion_and_.html

The Industrial Revolution in England (Lesson plan)

https://www.4shared.com/office/5Likpq...tion_in_E.html

The Industrial Revolution, 1700–1900

https://www.4shared.com/office/5w9io9...tion_1700.html

The secret history of the industrial Revolution

https://www.4shared.com/office/UfYwyE..._THE_INDU.html

Why the industrial revolution was a European phenomenon? JOEL MOKYR

https://www.4shared.com/office/mOmNTG...volution_.html



The impacts of Industrial Revolution


ASSESS THE IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION IN THE 18TH AND 19TH CENTURIES
https://www.4shared.com/office/wnNHOf...THE_INDUS.html

Session_24_The Impact of the Industrial Revolution

https://www.4shared.com/office/kRQ5Eg..._of_the_I.html

Social impact of the industrial revolution

https://www.4shared.com/office/kRQ5Eg..._of_the_I.html

The Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Warfare_ by Walter S. Zapotoczny

https://www.4shared.com/office/ZVT3qM...ustrial_R.html

The Industrial Revolution and its impact on the European society

https://www.4shared.com/office/rZ4424...tion_and_.html



Political Parties


Labour Party
https://www.4shared.com/file/1i1kLEoS/labourparty.html
Political.parties structure
https://www.4shared.com/office/yRM486...alparties.html




The Corn Law

Free Trade the Repeal of the Corn Laws_ CHERYL SCHONHARDT- BAILEY
https://www.4shared.com/office/KyGK-4..._of_the_C.html

Observations on the Effects of the Corn Laws_ Thomas R. Malthus
https://www.4shared.com/office/PSbirX...ffects_of.html

The second face hegemony_ Scott C. James; David A. Lake
https://www.4shared.com/office/smVfMi..._1__1989_.html



The victorian age

The Victorian age (1830 - 1900)
https://www.4shared.com/office/6KvT2c...e_Part_II.html

The Victorian period 1830-1901

https://www.4shared.com/office/mn1tUQ...an-Period.html

The Victorian Period (PowerPoint)
https://www.4shared.com/office/-vW3eP...an_Period.html

The Victorian Age (Queen Victoria; the Chartist Movement; the Corn Laws)
https://www.4shared.com/office/nKTa1X...orian_Age.html

Victorian Britain


https://www.4shared.com/office/TKzlZC...anBritain.html


Other Topics

A HISTORY OF BRITAIN_ Simon Schama

https://www.4shared.com/office/cYKsiE...ilisation.html

Overview of the UK system of government

https://www.4shared.com/file/LRVDZmJp...stem_of_g.html

Parliament House of Commons and Lords
https://www.4shared.com/file/38iThhN0/Parliament.html













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